Atopic dermatitis, also known as eczema (pronounced “EK-zema”), is a skin condition that causes dry, scaly, red, and itchy skin. It can occur at any age, and is more frequent in some families.
Eczema affects 10-20% of children and 1-3% of adults. The cause of atopic dermatitis is unknown, but genetic factors play a strong role. The symptoms are secondary to a dysfunctional outer layer of the skin known as the epidermis. Normally, an intact epidermis keeps out environmental irritants, allergens, and microbes. Because the skin is not working properly, these substances get into the body which lead to inflammation. In children with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis, up to 2/3 of them may have some underlying food allergy.